Fake meat showdown: Which are the healthiest and greenest meat substitutes?

Meat substitutes are everywhere. But just how healthy and climate friendly are they really?

Not all that glitters is gold. And not all that’s vegetarian is green — or healthy. This article drills through the hype, and scrutinizes the popular meat substitutes of today. Who are the climate and health winners?

What is tofu?

Tofu is the OG of meat substitutes. There's nothing new about it — it was invented around 2,000 years ago in ancient China. Made from soybeans, or rather; the coagulated milk of soybeans (yum), this food has nourished everyone from warring dynasties to hipster vegans alike. 

Is tofu healthy?

It’s very healthy. While the term ‘superfood’ is a bit inflationary, tofu is a fair candidate. It’s a moderate protein that, impressively, also contains the essential amino acids you find in meat — along with a roll call of nutrients and minerals. But it’s not all fun. Eating tofu isn’t recommended for people with poor thyroid function, a history of kidney stones, or women with estrogen sensitivity. 

Is tofu good for the environment?

Critics of tofu (great band name) claim that soy farming uses a lot of land, and point to deforestation in the Amazon as proof. But the fatal flaw in this logic is that almost 80% of soybean production goes to feeding livestock. So, ironically, if you’re strident against soy deforestation, eating less meat is a pretty effective solution.

Generally, if soybeans are fed directly to humans, instead of through animals, the climate wins. The carbon footprint of tofu should sit around 10% that of chicken. But, this can rocket to 200% if that tofu comes from deforested pastures, says the Carbon Trust. How to get around this? Buying organic-certified tofu — preferably not from South America — can save you from problematic supply chains, and lower your carbon footprint from food. 

Sources (in order): University of Michigan, WWF, Carbon Thrust

What is tempeh?

Tempeh, another soy-based food, is what happens when you take fermented soybeans and compress them into a cake. It has a vaguely nutty flavor and chewy texture. These qualities have seen it replace meat for hundreds of years in South East Asia — long before it appeared at your local food truck. 

Is tempeh healthy?

Yep. Like its cousin tofu, tempeh has a rich vitamin profile. But it also boasts double the protein — bringing it to protein parity with beef, but slightly less than chicken. Vegans beware: Tempeh naturally contains little to no vitamin B12 — an essential nutrient that your body needs, but can’t produce itself. So you’ll need to get that elsewhere.

Is tempeh good for the environment?

As a soy product, tempeh shares an environmental impact with tofu. Which is to say; pretty light, but with some caveats. Tempeh produces much less CO2 than beef, and around half that of chicken. But unlike tofu, tempeh is often sold with added flavors or ingredients, which may bulk the carbon footprint. Still, this isn’t likely to make a big difference. 

What is seitan?

While seitan sounds like the hot newcomer of the group, it’s almost as old as tofu. This wheat gluten was invented by Buddhist monks back in the good ol’ days of 6th century China. Those monks were presumably delighted with the chewy texture, as well as its ability to soak up sauces — and lo, the meat substitute has endured to this day.

Is seitan healthy?

It can be. Seitan is high in protein — containing roughly as much as meat, while staying low in carbs and fat. But unlike soy protein, it’s incomplete: missing some of the amino acids that make meat a staple. Seitan is also synthetic. It’s a looong way removed from the wheat it originally was. As such, it should be sprinkled over a diet rich in whole foods; fruits, vegetables, whole grains, etc. Also, being 100% wheat gluten, it’s basically kryptonite for anyone with gluten sensitivity. 

Is seitan good for the environment? 

Yes! Some clever researchers analyzed the carbon footprint of different proteins, and calculated that seitan has a footprint around 130x smaller than beef. Amazingly, they also claim it has a much lower footprint than tofu, although it’s unclear what tofu they compare against. In any case: seitan is a very strong climate choice. 

Image of a stack of raw vegetarian burgers

Fake meat: the new school (Beyond Meat and Impossible)

If you invent a time machine, go back a few years and buy shares in a LA startup called Beyond Meat. They are, along with Impossible Foods, the two gorillas of today's fake meat industry. Both have swept the public conscience through retail partnerships and celebrity endorsements. And as their signature products, both aim to replace the citadel of American meat culture: the hamburger.

Is fake meat healthy?

Kind of. But it’s basically lab food. So while these products boast ‘natural ingredients’, ultra-processing destroys much of their inherent goodness. With that said, they’re both fantastic sources of protein, although they derive it from different sources (Beyond Meat from pea protein isolate, Impossible from soy). And like meat, they contain vitamin B12 and a bunch of other happy stuff. 

Nevertheless, simulating the meat-eating ‘experience’ means a comparable amount of salt and saturated fat. So while these vegan meats may be slightly healthier than their real counterparts, they should still be eaten in moderation. Check the label to see if and how they fit into your diet.

Is fake meat good for the environment? 

Friendlier than meat, for sure. Beyond Meat often points at a flattering 2018 study, which shows that their burger uses much less water and energy compared to a real one. The Impossible Burger floats on similar science. It uses 20x less land, 50x less water, and creates 12x less greenhouse gas than hamburgers — according to the nonprofit Sierra Club.

What is mycoprotein (Quorn)

Mycoprotein is the fungal protein behind Quorn. Like newer vegan meats, mycoprotein is highly processed. But unlike them, Quorn is much older, and less experimental. It is the meat substitute in the UK, where it lives large in every supermarket, offering a branded alternative to almost every meat dish — from bacon to meatballs.  

Is Quorn healthy?

As healthy as highly-processed food can be. Raw quorn is naturally rich in protein, calcium, and other nutrients. And there’s some dusty research connecting Quorn intake to lower cholesterol, but that’s not solid science yet. 

Unlike tofu, which is usually sold raw, Quorn spans a huge range of fake meat products. This means that Quorn can be as unhealthy as the product it’s imitating. So if their sausages seem high in fat and salt, it’s because all sausages are high in fat and salt. As always — read the nutrition labels, not the marketing copy. 

(🇨🇦 If you’re Canadian and wondering what we’re talking about, Quorn didn’t pass your country’s stringent food safety standards. Make of this what you will.)

Is Quorn bad for the environment? 

Not really. To their credit, Quorn has been ahead of the curve for carbon labeling. Since 2011, they’ve worked with universities to calculate their carbon footprint per product, which they now display on 60% of their line. Their ground ‘beef’ comes at 0.16kg of CO2 per 75g serving, or 2.13kg of CO2 per kg. That’s less than a tenth of real beef, roughly speaking.

Sources (in order): FAO, Global Food Security, Science Magazine

Veggies: nature’s superhero squad

Instead of ‘plant-based’ meat, how about diving straight to the source? Humans have been cultivating vegetables since, well, forever. No kidding — we were roasting vegetables almost 200,000 years ago. They’re a cornerstone of nutrition, and our bodies love them.

Are vegetables healthy?

You betcha. Pulses and legumes are especially useful for replacing meat. They’re buzzing with proteins and compounds that keep your body tuned, and diseases at bay. And while no single vegetable will give you complete nutrition, mixing them is an easy (and tasty) way to plug different proteins, vitamins, and minerals into your diet. 

Fair warning though — some vitamins simply don’t occur in plants. So those on a veggie diet should ensure they’re getting essentials like vitamin B12 from elsewhere, such as fortified foods or certain meat substitutes. Variety is your friend here. But failing that: supplements.

Are vegetables environmentally friendly?

Yes!! Most meat substitutes out there are processed, some more than others. At every step of this production they lose nutrients, and gain emissions. Of course, the result is often (much) greener than the same weight of animal products, but you could also avoid the processing altogether. 

When bought whole and raw, vegetables require minimal processing. And for full marks, you can buy them locally and in season to cut your climate impact to a sliver!

Our pick: veggie power

Variety is important. In life, generally, but also for a complete diet. So please, enjoy the rainbow of meat substitutes out there. All of them, when farmed responsibly, are better for the environment than meat — so you’re doing the climate (and animals) a solid with every meal. 

But it’s worth remembering that fake meat, despite its many virtues, is highly-processed vegetable matter. Matter that has been seasoned, fortified, and moulded into the shape of real meat products. Soy products aren’t angels either: it takes industrial processing to turn soybeans into ready-to-cook tofu blocks. 

We think there’s a strong case to limit the fake (and real) meat altogether, and gather straight from nature’s garden instead. High-protein vegetables like pulses and legumes don’t substitute meat. Rather, they offer a deeply nutritious alternative to use in a bazillion different meals, from all cultures. The planet is glowing with many delicious veggies — make good use of them!

Mindful eating is one way to help the planet. But personal climate impact is complex, with many factors beyond our control. Klima neutralizes your total carbon footprint instantly, and provides custom tips to help you live your greenest life 🌱

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Neelesh Vasistha
by Neelesh Vasistha
Senior Copywriter
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